Xia


The Xia Dynasty was described in classic texts such as the Classic of History (Shujing), the Bamboo Annals, and the Records of the Grand Historian (Shiji) by Sima Qian. It has been documented that the tribe that founded the dynasty was the Huaxia, who were the ancestral people of the Han Chinese.

According to ancient Chinese texts, before the Xia Dynasty was established, battles were frequent between the Xia tribe and Chi You's tribe. The Xia tribe slowly developed around the time of Zhuanxu, one of the legendary Five Emperors.

The Records of the Grand Historian and the Classic of Rites say that Yu the Great is the grandson of Zhuanxu, but there are also other records, like Ban Gu, that say Yu is the fifth generation of Zhuanxu. Based on this, it is possible that the people of the Xia clan are descendants of Zhuanxu.

Gun, the father of Yu the Great, is the earliest recorded member of the Xia clan. When the Yellow River flooded, many tribes united together to control and stop the flooding. Gun was appointed by Yao to stop the flooding. He ordered the construction of large blockades to block the path of the water.


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The attempt of Gun to stop the flooding lasted for nine years but it was a failure because the floods became stronger. After nine years, Yao had already given his throne to Shun. Gun was ordered to be executed by Shun at Yushan (Chinese: 羽山), a mountain located between modern Donghai County in Jiangsu Province and Linshu County in Shandong Province.

Yu was highly trusted by Shun, so Shun appointed him to finish his father’s work, which was to stop the flooding. Yu’s method was different from his father’s: he organized people from different tribes and ordered them to help him build canals in all the major rivers that were flooding and lead the water out to the sea.

Yu was dedicated to his work. People praised his perseverance and were inspired, so much so that other tribes joined in the work. Legend says that in the 13 years it took him to successfully complete the work to stop the floods, he never went back to his home village to stop and rest, even though he passed by his house three times.

Yu’s success in stopping the flooding increased agricultural production (since the floods were destructive). The Xia tribe’s power increased, and Yu became the leader of the surrounding tribes.

Soon afterwards Shun sent Yu to lead an army to suppress the Sanmiao tribe who continuously abused the border tribes. After defeating them, he exiled them south to the Han River area. This victory strengthened the Xia tribe’s power even more.

As Shun aged, he thought of a successor and relinquished the throne to Yu, whom he deemed worthy. Yu’s succession marks the start of the Xia Dynasty. As Yu neared death he passed the throne to his son, Qi, instead of passing it to the most capable candidate, thus setting the precedent for dynastic rule or the Hereditary System. The Xia Dynasty began a period of family or clan control.(wikipedia.org)

Dynasty


The Qing Dynasty, which lasted from 1644 until 1912, was the last imperial dynasty of China. In the 19th century, the Qing Dynasty experienced Western imperialism following two Opium Wars (1839–42 and 1856–60) with Britain. China was forced to sign unequal treaties, pay compensation, allow extraterritoriality for foreign nationals, and cede Hong Kong to the British.

The First Sino-Japanese War (1894−95) resulted in Qing China's loss of influence in the Korean Peninsula, as well as the cession of Taiwan to Japan. The weakening of the Qing regime led to increasing domestic disorder. In 1850s and 1860s, the failed Taiping Rebellion ravaged southern China.

Other costly rebellions included the Punti–Hakka Clan Wars (1855–67), the Nien Rebellion (1851–68), the Miao Rebellion (1854–73), the Panthay Rebellion (1856–73) and the Dungan revolt (1862–77). These rebellions each resulted in an estimated loss of millions of lives, and had a devastating impact on the fragile economy.

In the 19th century, the great Chinese Diaspora began. Emigration rates were strengthened by conflicts and catastrophes such as the Northern Chinese Famine of 1876–1879, which claimed between 9 and 13 million lives in northern China. In 1898, the Guangxu Emperor drafted a reform plan to establish a modern constitutional monarchy, but he was overthrown by the Empress Dowager Cixi in a coup d'état.

The ill-fated anti-Western Boxer Rebellion of 1899–1901 further weakened the Qing Dynasty. The Xinhai Revolution of 1911–12 brought an end to the Qing Dynasty and established the Republic of China.


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On 1 January 1912, the Republic of China was established, and Sun Yat-sen of the Kuomintang (the KMT or Nationalist Party) was proclaimed provisional president. However, the presidency was later given to Yuan Shikai, a former Qing general, who in 1915 proclaimed himself Emperor of China. In the face of popular condemnation and opposition from his own Beiyang Army, he was forced to abdicate and reestablish the republic.

After Yuan Shikai's death in 1916, China was politically fragmented. Its Beijing-based government was internationally recognized but virtually powerless; regional warlords controlled most of its territory. In the late 1920s, the Kuomintang, under Chiang Kai-shek, was able to reunify the country under its own control with a series of deft military and political maneuverings, known collectively as the Northern Expedition.

The Kuomintang moved the nation's capital to Nanjing and implemented "political tutelage", an intermediate stage of political development outlined in Sun Yat-sen's San-min program for transforming China into a modern democratic state. The political division in China made it difficult for Chiang to battle the Communists, against whom the Kuomintang had been warring since 1927 in the Chinese Civil War.

This war continued successfully for the Kuomintang, especially after the Communists retreated in the Long March, until Japanese aggression and the 1936 Xi'an Incident forced Chiang to confront Imperial Japan.

The Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945), a theater of World War II, forced an uneasy alliance between the Kuomintang and the Communists. Japanese forces committed numerous war atrocities against the civilian population; in all, as many as 20 million Chinese civilians died.

An estimated 200,000 Chinese were massacred in the city of Nanjing alone during the Japanese occupation. Japan unconditionally surrendered to China in 1945.

Taiwan, including the Pescadores, was put under the administrative control of the Republic of China, which immediately claimed sovereignty. China emerged victorious but war-ravaged and financially drained.

The continued distrust between the Kuomintang and the Communists led to the resumption of civil war. In 1947, constitutional rule was established, but because of the ongoing unrest many provisions of the ROC constitution were never implemented in mainland China.(wikipedia.org)

Budidaya


Pohon jabon menjadi salah satu tanaman paling di gemari dalam beberapa tahun belakangan ini, karena disamping pertumbuhannya yang tergolong cepat di banding kayu sejenis.

bisa di bilang pohon lain yang memiliki pertumbuhan cepat adalah pohon albasia, du pohon ini memiliki masa panen yang tergolong cepat, namun tentu kualitas kayu memang tidak sebagus beberapa jenis kayu unggulan yang memiliki proses panjang.

Di beberapa tempat pohon jabon dan albasia sangat di gemari dan menjadi komoditas budidaya yang cukup pesat, di tambah proses panen yang bisa dikatan cukup pendek dibanding kayu-kayu jenis lainnya.

Pohon besar dengan batang yang bulat lurus, tinggi total mencapai 40 m. Batang bebas cabang (clear bole) dapat mencapai 18-20 m. Pada hutan-hutan alam yang tidak terkelola ada pula individu jati yang berbatang bengkok-bengkok.

Sementara varian jati blimbing memiliki batang yang berlekuk atau beralur dalam; dan jati pring (Jw., bambu) nampak seolah berbuku-buku seperti bambu. Kulit batang coklat kuning keabu-abuan, terpecah-pecah dangkal dalam alur memanjang batang.

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dan seringkali masyarakat indonesia salah mengartikan jati dengan tanaman jabon( antocephalus cadamba ) padahal mereka dari jenis yang berbeda. Pohon jati (Tectona grandis sp.) dapat tumbuh meraksasa selama ratusan tahun dengan ketinggian 40-45 meter dan diameter 1,8-2,4 meter. Namun, pohon jati rata-rata mencapai ketinggian 9-11 meter, dengan diameter 0,9-1,5 meter.

Pohon jati yang dianggap baik adalah pohon yang bergaris lingkar besar, berbatang lurus, dan sedikit cabangnya. Kayu jati terbaik biasanya berasal dari pohon yang berumur lebih daripada 80 tahun.

Daun umumnya besar, bulat telur terbalik, berhadapan, dengan tangkai yang sangat pendek. Daun pada anakan pohon berukuran besar, sekitar 60-70 cm × 80-100 cm; sedangkan pada pohon tua menyusut menjadi sekitar 15 × 20 cm.

Berbulu halus dan mempunyai rambut kelenjar di permukaan bawahnya. Daun yang muda berwarna kemerahan dan mengeluarkan getah berwarna merah darah apabila diremas. Ranting yang muda berpenampang segi empat, dan berbonggol di buku-bukunya.

Bunga majemuk terletak dalam malai besar, 40 cm × 40 cm atau lebih besar, berisi ratusan kuntum bunga tersusun dalam anak payung menggarpu dan terletak di ujung ranting; jauh di puncak tajuk pohon. Taju mahkota 6-7 buah, keputih-putihan, 8 mm. Berumah satu.

Buah berbentuk bulat agak gepeng, 0,5 – 2,5 cm, berambut kasar dengan inti tebal, berbiji 2-4, tetapi umumnya hanya satu yang tumbuh. Buah tersungkup oleh perbesaran kelopak bunga yang melembung menyerupai balon kecil. Nilai Rf pada daun jati sendiri sebesar 0,58-0,63.(wikipedia.org)

Kesehatan


The structure of the heart can vary among the different animal species. (See Circulatory system.) Cephalopods have two "gill hearts" and one "systemic heart". In vertebrates, the heart lies in the anterior part of the body cavity, dorsal to the gut.

It is always surrounded by a pericardium, which is usually a distinct structure, but may be continuous with the peritoneum in jawless and cartilaginous fish. Hagfish, uniquely among vertebrates, also possess a second heart-like structure in the tail.

The adult human heart has a mass of between 250 and 350 grams and is about the size of a fist. It is located anterior to the vertebral column and posterior to the sternum.

It is enclosed in a double-walled sac called the pericardium. The pericardium's outer wall is called the parietal pericardium and the inner one the visceral pericardium. Between them there is some pericardial fluid which functions to permit the inner and outer walls to slide easily over one another with the heart movements.

Outside the parietal pericardium is a fibrous layer called the fibrous pericardium which is attached to the mediastinal fascia. This sac protects the heart and anchors it to the surrounding structures.

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The outer wall of the human heart is composed of three layers; the outer layer is called the epicardium, or visceral pericardium since it is also the inner wall of the pericardium. The middle layer is called the myocardium and is composed of contractile cardiac muscle.

The inner layer is called the endocardium and is in contact with the blood that the heart pumps. Also, it merges with the inner lining (endothelium) of blood vessels and covers heart valves.

The human heart has four chambers, two superior atria and two inferior ventricles. The atria are the receiving chambers and the ventricles are the discharging chambers.

During each cardiac cycle, the atria contract first, forcing blood that has entered them into their respective ventricles, then the ventricles contract, forcing blood out of the heart. The pathway of the blood consists of a pulmonary circuit and a systemic circuit which function simultaneously.

Deoxygenated blood from the body flows via the vena cava into the right atrium, which pumps it through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle, whose subsequent contraction forces it out through the pulmonary valve into the pulmonary arteries leading to the lungs.

Meanwhile, oxygenated blood returns from the lungs through the pulmonary veins into the left atrium, which pumps it through the mitral valve into the left ventricle, whose subsequent strong contraction forces it out through the aortic valve to the aorta leading to the systemic circulation.(wikipedia.org)

Sejarah


Tentang albert einstein. Pada saat kelulusannya Einstein tidak dapat menemukan pekerjaan mengajar, keterburuannya sebagai orang muda yang mudah membuat marah professornya. Ayah seorang teman kelas menolongnya mendapatkan pekerjaan sebagai asisten teknik pemeriksa di Kantor Paten Swiss pada tahun1902.

Di sana, Einstein menilai aplikasi paten penemu untuk alat yang memerlukan pengetahuan fisika. Dia juga belajar menyadari pentingnya aplikasi dibanding dengan penjelasan yang buruk, dan belajar dari direktur bagaimana "menjelaskan dirinya secara benar". Dia kadang-kadang membetulkan desain mereka dan juga mengevaluasi kepraktisan hasil kerja mereka.

Einstein menikahi Mileva pada 6 januari 1903 Pernikahan Einstein dengan Mileva, seorang matematikawan. Pada 14 mei 1904, anak pertama dari pasangan ini, hans albert einstein, lahir.

Pada 1904 , posisi Einstein di Kantor Paten Swiss menjadi tetap. Dia mendapatkan gelar doktor setelah menyerahkan thesis "Eine neue Bestimmung der Moleküldimensionen" ("On a new determination of molecular dimensions") pada tahun 1905 dari Universitas Zürich.
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Pada tahun yang sama dia menulis empat artikel yang memberikan dasar fisika modern, tanpa banyak sastra sains yang dapat ia tunjuk atau banyak kolega dalam sains yang dapat ia diskusikan tentang teorinya. Banyak fisikawan setuju bahwa ketiga thesis itu (tentang gerak Brownian), efek fotolistrik, dan relativitas khusus) pantas mendapat Penghargaan Nobel.

Tetapi hanya thesis tentang efek fotoelektrik yang mendapatkan penghargaan tersebut. Ini adalah sebuah ironi, bukan hanya karena Einstein lebih tahu banyak tentang relativitas, tetapi juga karena efek fotoelektrik adalah sebuah fenomena kuantum, dan Einstein menjadi terbebas dari jalan dalam teori kuantum.

Yang membuat thesisnya luar biasa adalah, dalam setiap kasus, Einstein dengan yakin mengambil ide dari teori fisika ke konsekuensi logis dan berhasil menjelaskan hasil eksperimen yang membingungkan para ilmuwan selama beberapa dekade.(wikipedia.org)

Teknologi


Sampai saat ini masih tidak ada yang bisa mengalahkan android sebagai raksasa OS mobile. Pengguna Android mengalami peningkatan 14.3 persen bandingkan saja dengan kuartal ketiga 2012. Pada tahun lalu, pengguna Android dalam lingkup dunia mencapai porsi sebesar 75 persen.

sedangkan Strategy Analytics telah memperkirakan bahwa pada akhir sekitar September kemarin, pengguna Android di dunia berhasil melebihi angka 80 %.


http://www.techfest.org

Jumlah smartphone Android yang telah dipasarkan juga mengalami peningkatan yang signifikan. Jika pada tahun lalu terdapat sebanyak 129.6 juta smartphone Android yang berhasil telah di gelontorkan, maka jumlah tersebut sekarang mencapai angka 204.4 juta unit.

di sisi lain iOS milik Apple masih nyaman berada di posisi kedua dengan market share sebanyak 13.4 persen.

Sementara itu rival lainya Microsoft dengan Windows Phone miliknya sekarang berada cukup jauh meninggalkan salah satu ponsel buatan canada yaitu BlackBerry di posisi keempat dengan rentang market share mencapai angka 3.1 persen.(beritateknologi.com)